List of Chemical compounds their common formula, name and uses

List of Chemical compounds their common formula , name and uses

The table below contains the common names of important chemical compounds, their chemical formulas, and uses. The list has been prepared after a thorough analysis of previous year papers in which questions related to this topic were asked. This list is very useful for the candidates preparing for various government exams like SSC CGL, State PCS, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, SSC CPO, RRB JE, ​​SSC JE etc. Read this study material and boost your preparation for General Awareness section. ,

List of Chemical compounds their common formula, name and uses


Common Name Chemical Compounds/Elements Chemical Formula Uses
Baking Soda Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 It is used as an ingredient in baking.
Antiformin/ Bleach/ Chloride of Soda Sodium hypochlorite NaOCI/NaClO It is used on a large scale for surface purification, bleaching, odour removal and water disinfection.
Bleaching Powder Calcium Oxychloride CaOCl2 It is used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant.
Blue Vitriol Copper Sulphate CuSO4.xH2O It is used to control

fungus and algae.

Borax Sodium tetraborate decahydrate/ Sodium Borate Na2[B4O5(OH)4].8H2O It is used in laundry detergent.
Calomel Mercurous chloride Hg2CI2 It is used  as a fungicide, and formerly in medicine as a purgative.
Carbolic Acid/ Hydroxybenzene/ Phenic Acid Phenol C6H5OH It is used as a disinfectant in household cleaners.
Carborundum Silicon carbide SiC It is used  in automotive brakes and clutches.
Caustic potash Potassium hydroxide KOH It is used in liquid fertilizers, potassium soaps and detergents.
Chile Saltpetre Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 It is used for making high-strength glasses, fertilizers and explosives.
Chloroform Trichloromethane CHCI3 It is used as a solvent for lacquer, floor polishes and resins.
Cream of tartar Potassium hydrogen tartrate/ potassium bitartrate KC4H5O6 It is used in bakery to stabilize egg whites.
Dolomite Calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2 It is used as an ingredient in the production of glass, bricks, and ceramics.
Dry Ice Solid carbon dioxide CO2 It is used to preserve food.
Epsom salt Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate MgSO4.7H2O It is known to relieve pain and inflammation.
Freon-12/CFC-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane CCl2F2 It is used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners.
Galena Lead (ll) sulphide PbS It is also used in a green glaze applied to pottery.
Glauber’s Salt Sodium sulphate decahydrate Na2 SO4.10H2O It is used in medicine and as a dyeing agent.
Glycerol Propane-1,2,3-triol C3H8O3 It is used in food and skin care industry.
Green Vitriol Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate FeSO4. 7H2O It is used in sewage and water treatment, and as a pigment, fertilizer.
Gypsum Calcium sulphate dihydrate CaSO4.2H2O It is used to manufacture dry wall.



Common Name Chemical Compounds/Elements Chemical Formula Uses
Heavy water Deuterium Oxide D2O It is used in nuclear reactors, as a neutron moderator.
Hypo Solution Sodium Thiosulphate pentahydrate Na2S2O3.5H2O It is used for both film and photographic paper processing.
Hematite Iron (lll) Oxide/ Ferric Oxide Fe2O3 It is used to produce pigments, preparations for heavy media separation, radiation shielding etc.
Laughing gas Dinitrogen monoxide / Nitrous Oxide N2O It is used by dentist.
Quick Lime/ Burnt Lime Calcium Oxide CaO It is used in production of iron and steel, paper and pulp and in treatment of water.
Slaked Lime Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 It is used in mortars, plasters, and cements.
Limestone Calcium carbonate CaCO3 It is used as a building material.
Litharge(Red) and Massicot (Yellow) Lead (ll) Oxide/ Lead Monoxide PbO It is used in the manufacture of Lead Stabilizers pottery, Lead glass, paints, enamels, and inks.
Lye/ Caustic soda Sodium hydroxide NaOH It is used in manufacture of pulp and paper, alumina, soap and detergents.
Marsh Gas Methane CH4 It is poisonous gas mainly found in mines.
Methyl ethyl ketone/ Butanone Butan-2-one C4H8O It is mainly used in paint formation.
Milk of magnesia Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 It is used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.
Mohr’s Salt Ammonium iron (II) sulphate (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O It is used to increase the shelf life of iron and reduce oxidation.
Aqua Fortis/ Spirit of Niter Nitric acid HNO3 It is used for production of explosives, and fertilizers.
Muriatic acid Hydrochloric acid HCI It is used as a food additive,

and in gelatin production, Leather processing, etc.

Oil of Vitriol Sulphuric acid H2SO4 It is use for making fertilizer.
Wintergreen oil Methyl salicylate C8H8O3 It is used in traditional medicine for the

bacterial infections.

Phosgene Carbonyl dichloride COCl2 It is used to make plastics and pesticides.
Plaster of Paris Calcium sulphate hemihydrate CaSO4.1/2H2O It is used as a protective coating on walls and ceilings.
Potash Alum/Potassium Alum Potassium aluminium sulphate dodecahydrate KAl(SO4)2·12H2O


It is commonly used in water purification, leather tanning, dyeing.
Rochelle Salt Potassium sodium tartrate KNaC4H4O6.4H2O It is used in manufacturing of pectins and gelatines.
Quartz Silicon dioxide (Silica) SiO2 It is used as oscillators in radios, watches.
QuickSilver Mercury Hg It is  used in thermometers, thermostats, barometers
Table Salt/Common Salt Sodium chloride NaCI It is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.
2-propanol/Propan-2-ol Isopropyl alcohol (CH3)2CHOH It is used to treat tremors, chest pain, hypertension, heart rhythm disorders, and other heart or circulatory conditions.
Sal ammoniac Ammonium chloride NH4CI It is used as cleaning agent in several industrial processes.
Saltpetre Potassium nitrate KNO3 It is used as a common food preservative.
Slaked Lime Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 It is used to form mortars, plasters, and cements.
TNT Trinitrotoluene C6H2(NO2)3CH3 It is used in used in military shells, bombs, and grenades.
Vermilion/ Cinnabar Mercuric sulphide HgS It is used as a pigment, and carve it into jewelry and ornaments.
Washing Soda Sodium carbonate decahydrate Na2CO3. 10H2O It is used in  commercial detergent mixtures to treat hard water.
White Vitriol Zinc Sulphate ZnSO4.7H2O It is used for preserving skins and wood.


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